Hernia is a protrusion or projection of an organ or organ part through an abnormal opening in the containing wall of its cavity, a hernia results. An inguinal hernia occurs when the omentum, the large or small intestine, or the bladder protrudes into the inguinal canal. In an indirect inguinal hernia, the sac protrudes through the internal inguinal ring into the inguinal canal and, in males, may descend into the scrotum. In a direct inguinal hernia, the hernial sac projects through a weakness in the abdominal wall in the area of the rectus abdominal muscle and inguinal ligament.
Hernia is classified into three types:
- Reducible, Hernias can be reducible if the hernia can be easily manipulated back into place
- Irreducible or incarcerated, this cannot usually be reduced manually because adhesions form in the hernia sac.
- Strangulated, if part of the herniated intestine becomes twisted or edematous and causing serious complications, possibly resulting in intestinal obstruction and necrosis.
Inguinal hernias can be direct which is herniation through an area of muscle weakness, in the inguinal canal, and inguinal hernias indirect herniation through the inguinal ring. Indirect hernias, the more common form, can develop at any age but are especially prevalent in infants younger than age 1. This form is three times more common in males.
Causes for Inguinal Hernia
An inguinal hernia is the result of either a congenital weakening of the abdominal wall, traumatic injury, aging, weakened abdominal muscles because of pregnancy, or from increased intra-abdominal pressure (due to heavy lifting, exertion, obesity, excessive coughing, or straining with defecation). Inguinal hernia is a common congenital malformation that may occur in males during the seventh month of gestation. Normally, at this time, the testicle descends into the scrotum, preceded by the peritoneal sac. If the sac closes improperly, it leaves an opening through which the intestine can slip, causing a hernia.
Complications for Inguinal Hernia
Inguinal hernia may lead to incarceration or strangulation. That can interfere with normal blood flow and peristalsis, and leading to intestinal obstruction and necrosis.
Diagnostic tests for Inguinal Hernia
Commonly No specific laboratory tests are useful for the diagnosis of an inguinal hernia. Diagnosis is made on the basis of a physical examination. Although assessment findings are the cornerstone of diagnosis, suspected bowel obstruction requires X-rays and a white blood cell count, which may be elevated.
Treatment for Inguinal Hernia
The choice of therapy depends on the type of hernia. For a reducible hernia, temporary relief may result from moving the protruding organ back into place. Afterward, a truss may be applied to keep the abdominal contents from protruding through the hernial sac. Although a truss doesn’t cure a hernia, the device is especially helpful for an elderly or a debilitated patient, for whom any surgery is potentially hazardous.
Herniorrhaphy is the preferred surgical treatment for infants, adults, and otherwise-healthy elderly patients. This procedure replaces hernial sac contents into the abdominal cavity and seals the opening. Another effective procedure is hernioplasty, which involves reinforcing the weakened area with steel mesh, fascia, or wire.
Strangulated or necrotic hernia requires bowel resection. Rarely, an extensive resection may require a temporary colostomy
Nursing Diagnosis Inguinal Hernia
Patient teaching home health guide for Inguinal Hernia
- Inguinal Hernia Surgery Video The choice of therapy depends on the type of hernia. For a reducible hernia, temporary relief may result from moving...
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